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The effects of a primary care low-carbohydrate, high-fat dietary educational intervention on laboratory and anthropometric data of patients with chronic disease: a retrospective cohort chart review
Alexandra T Myshak-Davis, Janet Evans, Heidi Howay, Brodie M Sakakibara
Family Practice, cmac003, https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmac003
Published: 05 February 2022
Low-carbohydrate and high-fat (LCHF) diets are shown to have health benefits such as weight loss and improved cardiovascular health. Few studies, however, on LCHF diets have been completed in a real-world primary care setting over an extended period of time.
To examine the efficacy of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat dietary educational intervention delivered in a family practice setting on weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). A secondary objective was to determine whether compliance to the program had an effect on outcomes.
In this retrospective chart review, we collected laboratory and anthropometric data from an electronic medical record system for patients (n = 122) at least 19 years of age, who attended at least 2 LCHF educational sessions between January 2018 and May 2020. Pre-post mean differences of outcome were analysed using paired sample t-tests. Independent sample t-tests examined the effect of compliance on the outcomes.
Statistically significant reductions in weight (3.96 kg [P < 0.001]) and BMI (1.46 kg/m2 [P = 0.001]) were observed. Compared with patients who participated in ≤5 educational visits, patients who participated in >5 visits showed trends towards more clinically significant changes in weight, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, eGFR, and ACR.
Improvements in weight and BMI indicate the utility of providing LCHF health promotion interventions in primary care settings. Greater compliance to LCHF interventions results in greater improvement in laboratory and anthropometric outcomes, including HbA1c.