Tutkimuskatsaus. Astrup ja kumppanit.Sustainable and personalized nutrition: From earth health to public health
• The main dietary recommendations currently suggest to limit the intake of satured fats.
• Yet, recent data fail to demonstrate harm of saturated fats for the development of overweight, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
• Dietary recommendations at a population level should be focused on the type of food rather than on single nutrients, at variance with dietary interventions for secondary prevention.
• Sustainability demands that the amounts of satured fats are re-evaluated in personalized diets.
Sustainable nutrition, equaling earth health, involves a personalized approach designed in terms of precision and avoidance of still cogent but unjustified dogmas, equaling public health. For instance, current dietary recommendations continue to dwell on the need to limit as much as possible the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), notwithstanding the mounting evidence that the effects of food on health cannot be predicted from the content of single nutrients without considering the overall macronutrient composition and the role of the food matrix. The traditional recommendation to restrict SFA ignores that their effects on health depend on the interaction between naturally occurring food components and those introduced by food processing. It is warranted to modify the still widely promoted dietary guidelines based upon such single nutrients as SFA and instead personalize dietary habits on the basis of the whole pattern of the food matrix. Accordingly, the double edge of malnutrition, that involves deficiency as well as excess and materializes in many individuals throughout their life course, might be tackled by implementing sustainability, with the additional effect of overcoming global inequalities. Within this context SFA may regain their position of tasty and cheap sources of energy to be adapted to each individual lifestyle.